Over the course of a normal, healthy pregnancy, the body undergoes substantial physiological changes. These changes include hormonal changes, weight gain, immune system modulation, and others, which must all be coordinated to preserve the health of both the mother and the offspring. While most of the pregnancy associated hormonal and metabolic changes have been known for decades, while the changes in microbiome composition that take place during gestation have only recently been studied and understood. Pregnancy is the beginning of bacterial exposure to the developing embryo and this early set of microflora is affected by various maternal, environmental, genetic factors thus shaping the early microbiome of the infant and thus also influences the health in adult life. With some preliminary studies (Pandey et al., 2012), our group now focuses on the understanding of succession of gut microbiota throughout pregnancy and infancy and their relation. This study also explores the influence of various factors on maternal and child microbiome.